Further Reading

This booklet includes extracts from a conference paper published about the development of the New Metaphors method, which is worth reading if you’d like more of the academic background. The paper is based around an earlier prototype of the cards, with some different images and concepts:

Dan Lockton, Devika Singh, Saloni Sabnis, Michelle Chou, Sarah Foley, Alejandro Pantoja (2019). ‘New Metaphors: A Workshop Method for Generating Ideas and Reframing Problems in Design and Beyond’. C&C 2019: ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition. June 2019, San Diego. ACM digital library: doi:10.1145/3325480.3326570

A free self-archived PDF version of the paper is available here.

Deborah Lupton’s Vitalities Lab at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, has developed a different set of worksheets to use with the New Metaphors cards, or other images—the Vital Images Method, focused on meanings and emotions. There is a write-up, and downloads of the worksheets, at

Other Resources

The Metaphor Cards (2018) by Nick Logler, Daisy Yoo and Batya Friedman at the University of Washington.

Michael Erard’s article See Through Words at Aeon (2015).

The section ‘Design by Metaphor’ in Martin Tomitsch and colleagues’ book, Design. Think. Make. Break. Repeat. (BIS Publishers, 2018).

Brian Eno and Peter Schmidt’s Oblique Strategies card deck (and various online versions), 1975 to date.

The New Economy Organisers’ Network, New Economics Foundation, FrameWorks Institute, and Public Interest Research Centre’s report, Framing The Economy: How to win the case for a better system (2018).

Katy Gero and Lydia Chilton’s Metaphoria project (2019)

Darius Kazemi’s Metaphor-a-Minute (2012)

Disruptive Improvisation: Work on applying disruptive improvisation techniques in interaction design, by Kristina Andersen, Laura Devendorf, James Pierce, Ron Wakkary, and Daniela Rosner (2018)

The Design with Intent cards by Dan Lockton, David Harrison, and Neville Stanton (2010)

Arthur Koestler’s The Act of Creation (Hutchinson, 1964)

George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s Metaphors We Live By (U. Chicago Press, 1980) and Lakoff’s Don’t Think of an Elephant (Chelsea Green, 2014).

Yoko Ono’s books Grapefruit (1970) and Acorn (2013)

The Thing from the Future card deck by Stuart Candy and Jeff Watson, Situation Lab (2017).

The Manifesto! card deck by Julian Hanna, Simone Ashby, Sónia Matos, Alexis Faria, and Callum Nash (2019).

Kate Compton’s Generominos card deck (2017) and her work on ‘casual creators’.

Superflux’s Instant Archetypes: A New Tarot for the New Normal card deck, by Jon Ardern, Anab Jain, Paul Graham Raven and Amélie Barnathan (2018)

Josina Vink’s work on ‘Rethinking the root metaphor of design’, Service Design for Innovation Network (2017).

Gerald and Lindsay Zaltman’s Marketing Metaphoria (Harvard Business Press, 2008)

J Paul Neeley’s Yossarian ‘creative search engine’ (2012)